1.Multiple choice questions
(i) Which one of the following type of resource is iron ore?
(ii) Under which of the following type of resource can tidal energy be put?
(iii) Which one of the following is the main cause of land degradation in Punjab?
(a) Intensive cultivation
(c) Over irrigation
ANSWER:- Over irrigation
(iv) In which one of the following states is terrace cultivation practiced?
(b) Plains of Uttar Pradesh
(v) In which of the following states is black soil found?
(a) Jammu and Kashmir
2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) Name three states having black soil and the crop which is mainly grown in it.
ANSWER:-Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh are states having black soil. Cotton is mainly grown in black soil.
ii) What type of soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast? Give three main features of this type of soil.
ANSWER:- Alluvial Soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast.
Three features of alluvial soil:
→ Alluvial soils are very fertile.
→ They are ideal for growing sugarcane, wheat and paddy.
→ The regions of alluvial soils are intensively cultivated and densely populated.
iii) What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in the hilly areas?
ANSWER:-In hilly areas, soil erosion can be controlled by ploughing across contour-lines, making use of terrace farming techniques and using strips of grasses to check soil erosion by wind and water.
(iv) What are the biotic and abiotic resources? Give some examples.
Biotic Resources : The resources which are obtained from the biosphere and have life are called Biotic Resources. For example, animals and plants including human beings.
Abiotic Resources: The resources which are composed of non-living things are called Abiotic Resources. For example, water, minerals.
3. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.
(i) Explain land use pattern in India and why has the land under forest not increased much since 1960-61?
ANSWER:- Land resources in India are primarily divided into agricultural land, forest land, land meant for pasture and grazing, and waste land. Waste land includes rocky, arid and desert areas, and land used for other non-agricultural purposes such as housing, roads and industry. The total geographical area of India is 3.28 million sq km. As per the land use data only 93% of the total geographical area is available. Of this 43.4% is the net shown area, forest cover is 22.6%, 4.4% is culturable waste, 7.03% is current fallow, 4% is covered by pastures and 1% is covered by tree crops. The land under forest has not increased since 1960–61 because in the post- independence era demand for more land to expand agriculture, mainly after Green Revolution, developmental works and infrastructural facilities, led to clearance of forests areas. Industrialisation and urbanisation also decreased the forest area. Thus, land under forest has increased by only about 4% since 1960-61.
(ii) How have technical and economic development led to more consumption of resources?
ANSWER:-Technical and economic development have led to more consumption of resources on account of various factors.
i)Technological development provides sophisticated equipments. As a result, production increases ultimately leading to consumption of more resources.
ii)Technological development also leads to economic development. When the economic condition of a country rises, the needs of people also rise. It again results into more consumption of resources.
iii) Economic development provides favourable environment for the development of latest technologies.