Wednesday, 20 July 2016

TEXTBOOK ANSWERS AND SOLUTIONS OF CBSE CLASS X SOCIAL SCIENCE Chapter 1 Power Sharing



1. What are the different forms of power sharing in modern democracies? Give an example of each of these.

Answer:- In modern democracies, power sharing arrangements have taken different forms:

Horizontal Division of Power : The sharing of power among the different organs of government, such as the executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary. In this type of power sharing arrangement, different organs of government, placed at the same level, exercised different powers. This ensures that none of the organs can exercise unlimited power.

Vertical Division of Power: It is a system of power sharing among governments at different levels. A general government for the entire country which is usually called a Central or Union government in India. In India, we refer to it as the Central Government, State Governments, Municipality, Gram Panchayat etc. The Constitution lays down the powers of different levels of government.

Division of Power among Social Groups: The countries having community government shares the power among different social groups, such as the religious and linguistic groups. The system of reserved constituencies in India is another example. Such an arrangement is used to give minority communities a fair share in power, who otherwise would feel alienated from the government.

Division of Power among Political Parties, Pressure Groups and Movements : Political Parties, Pressure Groups and Movements help in controlling or influencing those who are in power. In contemporary democracies such a division takes the form of competition among different parties, which in turn ensures that power does not remain in one hand and is shared among different political parties representing different ideologies and social groups.


2. State one prudential reason and one moral reason for power sharing with an example from the Indian context.

Answer:-

Prudential Reason: Power sharing helps in reducing the conflict between various social groups. Hence, power sharing is necessary for maintaining social harmony and peace. In India we have reserved constituencies for women and minorities in the Parliament and the state assemblies.

Moral Reason: Power sharing is the essence of democracy. In a truly democratic setup, the citizens too have a stake in governance. The division of power among different units in India is a suitable example of moral reason for power sharing.


3. After reading this chapter, three students drew different conclusions. Which of these do you agree with and why? Give your reasons in about 50 words.

Thomman - Power sharing is necessary only in societies which have religiousm, linguistic or ethnic divisions.

Mathayi – Power sharing is suitable only for big countries that have regional divisions.

Ouseph – Every society needs some form of power sharing even if it is small or does not have social divisions.

Answer:- Ouseph's statement is the most logical, and thus, should be agreed on. We know that the power to people is the basic theme of a democracy. By sharing power, we respect the basic theme of democracy. As power sharing reduces the possibility of conflict between social groups and strengthens the unity of the nation.


4. The Mayor of Merchtem, a town near Brussels in Belgium, has defended a ban on speaking French in the town’s schools. He said that the ban would help all non-Dutch speakers integrate in this Flemish town. Do you think that this measure is in keeping with the spirit of Belgium’s power sharing arrangements? Give your reasons in about 50 words.

Answer:- This measure is not in keeping with Belgium’s power sharing arrangements. The arrangements seek to maintain peace between the French and Dutch-speaking communities. By putting a ban on speaking French, the mayor will cause civil unrest. Both the languages should be made acceptable in the town's schools. This bilingual education system will be a better way to integrate the people of the town.


5. Read the following passage and pick out any one of the prudential reasons for power sharing offered in this.

“We need to give more power to the panchayats to realise the dream of Mahatma Gandhi and the hopes of the makers of our Constitution. Panchayati Raj establishes true democracy. It restores power to the only place where power belongs in a democracy – in the hands of the people. Giving power to Panchayats is also a way to reduce corruption and increase administrative efficiency. When people participate in the planning and implementation of developmental schemes, they would naturally exercise greater control over these schemes. This would eliminate the corrupt middlemen. Thus, Panchayati Raj will strengthen the foundations of our democracy.”

Answer:- This passage shows power sharing at different levels of the government; which is one of the prudential reasons. This would eliminate the corrupt middlemen.


6. Different arguments are usually put forth in favour of and against power sharing. Identify those which are in favour of power sharing and select the answer using the codes given below? Power sharing:

A. reduces conflict among different communities
B. decreases the possibility of arbitrariness
C. delays decision making process
D. accommodates diversities
E. increases instability and divisiveness
F. promotes people’s participation in government
G. undermines the unity of a country

(a)
A
B
D
F
(b)
A
C
E
F
(c)
A
B
D
G
(d)
B
C
D
G

Answer:- (a)A/B/D/F

7. Consider the following statements about power sharing arrangements in Belgium and Sri Lanka.

A. In Belgium, the Dutch-speaking majority people tried to impose their domination on the minority French-speaking community.

B. In Sri Lanka, the policies of the government sought to ensure the dominance of the Sinhala-speaking majority.

C. The Tamils in Sri Lanka demanded a federal arrangement of power sharing to protect their culture, language and equality of opportunity in education and jobs.

D. The transformation of Belgium from unitary government to a federal one prevented a possible division of the country on linguistic lines.

Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a)   A, B, C and D (b) A, B and D (c) C and D (d) B, C and D
Answer:- (d) B, C and D


8. Match List I (forms of power sharing) with List II (forms of government) and select the correct answer using the codes given below in the lists:

List I
List II

1.

Power shared among different organs of government
A. Community government

2.

Power shared among governments at different levels
B. Separation of powers

3.

Power shared by different social groups
C. Coalition government

4.
Power shared by two or more political parties
D.Federal government



1
2
3
4

(a)
D
A
B
C
(b)
B
C
D
A

(c)
B
D
A

C
(d)
C
D
A
B


Answer:- (c) B D A C


9. Consider the following two statements on power sharing and select the answer using the codes given below:

A. Power sharing is good for democracy.
B. It helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups.
Which of these statements are true and false?

(a) A is true but B is false
(b) Both A and B are true
(c) Both A and B are false
(d) A is false but B is true


 Answer:-  (b) Both A and B are true.
Written By Badal Paul
The author is a passionate blogger, writer and educationalist. This blog is created to ease troubles of the Cbse students. The author holds multiple blogs and the writer of the Novel KALCHAKRA, OOM AND THE CHOSEN FIVE.