WRITE IN BRIEF
1.Explain the following .
1. Why did the women workers in Britain attack the Spinning Jenny?
2. In the seventeenth century merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants and artisans within the villages
3. Why did the port of Surat decline by the end of the eighteenth century?
4. The East India Company appointed gomasthas to supervise the weavers in India.
1.Why did the women workers in Britain attack the Spinning Jenny?
Ans – Before the advent of Spinning Jenny the woolen industry used to move on with the women spinning by hand .The introduction of the new technology gave birth to fear to the women workers .They were afraid of losing their jobs .To bring an end to the reason of their unemployment the women workers attacked the Spinning Jenny .This conflict between the humans and the machines protracted.
2) In the seventeenth century merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants and artisans within the villages .
Ans- In the seventeenth century it was a tough work for the new merchants to expand their business. The main hindrance had been urban crafts and trade guilds which had full control over the trade .They were actually association of producers who controlled the production ,price ,trained crafts people, regulated the competition of the market and restricted the entry of new merchant into the trade .Their activities were limited within the arena of the towns .Even the rulers authenticated the guilds and issued monopoly rights .So it turned difficult for the new merchants to grow within the towns .So they decided to go towards the villages to expand their business where they employed the peasants and artisans.
3) Why did the port of Surat decline by the end of the eighteenth century?
Answer - Immense was the importance of the port of Surat before the advent of the colonialists .Spontaneous and fruitful trade used to be accomplished by this port which had an influence over The Arabian sea , Red sea and the Gulf .A good number Indian merchants used this port to prosper their business. But the advent of the colonials changed the scenario.
4) The East India Company appointed gomasthas to supervise the weavers in India.
Answer- The East India Company had a purpose to abolish the control of the traders and the brokers from the trade of the cloth .They wanted a direct and fruitful control over these weavers to ensure the utmost profit. To serve these purpose they appointed some servants whom they termed as gomosthas .These gomosthas were endowed with the responsibilities of supervising the weavers , collecting the supplies and evaluate the quality of the cloth .To make it a successful one they gave loans to the weavers on the condition that they will have to hand over the raw materials only to the gomosthas .After they took the loan they were not allowed to go to any other traders.
2) Write True or false against each statement .
i) At the end of nineteenth century ,80% of the total workforce in Europe was employed in the technologically advanced industrial sector.
ii) The international market for fine textiles was dominated by India till the eighteenth century .
iii) The American civil war resulted in the reduction of cotton exports from India.
iv) The introduction of the fly shuttle enabled handloom workers to improve their productivity.
3) Explain what is meant by proto industrialization?
Answer- Before the advent of machines and factories producing a large number of industrial productions in Europe and England there was even a large industrial production .This production was not of the factories but of the cottage industries .This very period is referred as proto industrialization.
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