Sunday, 16 March 2014


 This chapter deals with the various classification of animal kingdom usually we are families with the plants and their classes from junior classes

            List us now briefly discuss again here –

1) What is the basis of classification of algae?

            Based on –      Pigments                    - Storage products
                                    Flagellation                - chemistry of cell wall

2) When and where does reduction division takes place in the life cycle of liverwort, a moss, a fern, a gymnosperm & an angiosperm?

            In all these cases, meiosis is spores & occurs at the time of asexual reproduction. It produces haploid spores.

            In live warts and mosses it occur sir spore mother’s cells found in capsule. In ferns it occurs in spore mother cell found in sporangia. In gymnosperm it occurs in ancrooporangium & in angiosperm also it occurs in microsporangium.

3) Name three groups of plants that bear archegonia. Briefly describe the life cycle of any one of them.

            Archegonia are found in archegoniate like Bryophyte, ptridophyta & gymnosperms.

            You can describe the life cycle of a fern or man.

4) Mention the plaids of the following: Peritoneal cell of mass, primary endosperm nucleus in dicot, leaf cell of a moss; portholes cell of fern, gamma cell in marchontia; merishom cell of a monocot, ovum of a licrwort & zygote of a fern.

            Peritoneal cell (haploid, x)
            Primary endosperm nucleus of dicot (triploid, 3x)
            Leaf cell o f moss (haploid, x)
            Portholes cell of fern (haploid, x)
            Gamma cell of Marchontia (haploid, x)
            Meristem cell of monocot (diploid, 2 xs)
            Ovum of live worth (haploid, x)
            Zygote of a fern (diploid, 2x)

5) Both gymnosperms & angiosperms bear seed, then why they are classified separately

            Because gymnosperms bear necked seed without covered by a fruit where as angiosperm bears covered seed by fruit.

6) What is peterospory? Briefly comment upon its significance? Give two examples.

            When same plant bears two types of spores (micro- spores & megaspores) is called netrosposy
            Found in – pteridophytes like salvia, all gymnosperms & angiosperms

            It has helped in the differentiation of male & fern all gametophytes & greater cones of survival of female gametophyte that develops in the mega sporangium.

7)         Explain briefly the following terms with suitable examples

1) Protozoa -              It is the puvenile, green, autotrophic filament like haploid, independent, gametophytes stage in the life cycle of moss.

2) Antheridia-            It is multicellular, jacketed male sex organ in oxyophytes & ptesidophytes. It produces sperms (a therozoids)

3) Archegonia -          It is multicultural, jacketed, flask shaped female sex organs in bryophyin, pteridophytes & gymnosperms. It has a neck & swollen Venter & produces a single female gamets called egg or ovum

4) Diplontic -              It is a type of life cycle in which dominant free living phase is diploid (2nd It produces gamete meiosis e.g. focus.

5) Saprophyte            It is a leaf that bears sporangia rosary. it may be microsporophyll. It aggregate to fern stobilliorane.
                                                                        E.g. = fern.

6) Isogamies               It is the sexual reproduction in which the furring gametes are similar in structure
                                                            E.g. = worthies.

8) Match the following

                        Plants                                      Groups

            a) Chlamydomanas                i) Moss
            b) Cycas                                  ii) Pteridophyte
            c) Selaginella                          iii) Alga’s
            d) Sphagnum                                     iv) Gymnosperm

            An: -    a) = (iii)
                        b) = (iv)
                        c) = (ii)
                        d) = (i)

9) Write a note on economic importance of algal & gymnosperms

            Economic Importance of algal

                        1) Brown algal are used as food
                        2)  Some brown algal get attached to hulls of ships called fouling of ships
                        3) Focus & laminiraia are rich source of iodine

            Economic Importance of gymnosperms.

                        1) Gymnosperms woods are used in manufacture of paper.
                        2) Drug ephedrine is obtained from Ephedrine
                        3) Gymnosperm possesses softwood.
                        4) Some of pines are edible.

10) Difference take between Red algal & Brown algal.

Red algal

1) Unicellular species fewer.

ii) Phycobilins present

iii) Chlorophyee – a & d type

iv) Fucoxanthin yobi present
Brown algal

i) Unicellular species

ii) Phycobilins absent

iii) chlorophyll a & c

iv) It is absent.

11) Differentiate between liverworts & Mosses


The plant body is dorisventrol

Rhizoids are unicellular

Columbus is generally absent

The plant body has radial symmetry.

Rhizoids are multicultural

Capsule contains a sterile columella.

12) Differentiate between Homusporous & Heterosporus Ptesidophytes

Homosporous  Pteridophytes

All the sporangia are similar

The spores are of one type. 
Heterosporous pteridophytes

The sporangia are of two types, macro & micro poring  

The spores are of two type

13) Difference Between Synagamy & Triple fusion


It is the archival or generalize fertilization

Zygote forms the embryo
Triple fusion

It is vegetative fertilization

Primary endosperm cell produces a food laden endosperm

14) Distinguish between monocots & dicots.


There are one cotyledon

Flowers are usually timorous

Pollen grains generally possess a single germinal furrow

There are usually two cotyledon

Flowers are generally pentamirous

Pollen grains commonly have three germ pores.

15) Describe the important characteristics of gymnosperms

            I) the sporophylls are aggregated to form cones.

ii) The embryo may contain one to several cotyledons.

iii) They bear naked seed.

iv) Ovules are sessile.

v) Fruits never formed. 

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