Saturday, 12 August 2017


1.      Who were called as daimios?
Ans- In nineteenth century Japan, wealthy landowners were called as Daimios. They were the territorial magnates who dominated much of thecountry from about the 11th to the 19th century.

2.     How did the old couple take care of Muko, the dog?
Ans- The couple had been good and generous. As they had no children, they loved it as though it were a baby. The old dame made it a cushion of blue crape, and at mealtime Muko—for that was its name—would sit on it as snug as any cat. The kind people fed the pet with tidbits of fish from their own chopsticks, and all the boiled rice it wanted.

3.     How did the dog love the old couple?
Ans- The old couple took care of the dog as if it were a baby. The dog too was very much in love with the old couple. So the dumb creature loved its protectors like a being with a soul.
4.   What was the profession of the old man?
Ans- The old man was a farmer. He was a rice farmer and he went daily with hoe or spade into the fields, working hard from morning until O Tento Sama (as the sun is called) had gone down behind the hills.

5.     How was the dog good to the herons?
Ans- Like the good old couple, the dog was also good natured. When the farmer used to go to the field in work the dog used to follow him. The dog never harmed the white heron that walked in the footsteps of the old man to pick up the worms.
6.     How was the old farmer kind to any living being?

Ans- The old famer was very kind to everything that had life .He considered his pet Muko as his own child and took care of him in the same way .Besides when he used to go to work in the field he used to turn up a sod on purpose to give food to the birds.

7.      How did the dog behave one day and how did the old farmer react to it?

Answer- One day while working in the field the dog came running to him, putting his paws against his legs and motioning with his head to some spot behind. The old man at first thought his pet was only playing and did not mind it.
8.     How did the dog find the treasure for the first time

Answer- At first the old farmer did not mind the unusual behavior of the dog .But when the dog kept whining and running to and fro for some minutes, the old man followed the dog a few yards to a place where the animal began a lively scratching. Thinking it was possibly a buried bone or bit of fish, the old man struck his hoe in the earth. And at an instance came out a pile of gold coins.

9.    How did the good old couple celebrate after they got rich?

Answer- After the good old couple got the unexpected treasure they bought a piece of land, made a feast for their friends, and gave plentifully to their poor neighbours. As for the dog, they petted him till they nearly smothered him with kindness.

10.          How was the wicked old couple?

Answer- In the same village there lived a wicked old man and his wife, not a bit sensitive and kind, who had always kicked and scolded all dogs whenever any passed their house.

11. How did the wicked old couple coax Muko?

Answer- When the wicked old couple heard about the good luck of their neighbours, they coaxed the dog into their garden and set before him bits of fish and other dainties, hoping he would find treasure for them. But the dog, being afraid of the cruel pair, would neither eat nor move.

12.          What did Muko find for the wicked old couple?

Answer- When the wicked old couple dragged Muko out of doors, taking a spade and hoe with them, the dog got near a pine tree growing in the garden than he began to paw and scratch the ground, as if a mighty treasure lay beneath. At this the greedy old fellow started to dig the land with hoe and spade. But they found nothing but a dead kitten, the smell of which made them drop their tools and shut their noses.

13.          How did the wicked couple kill Muko?

Answer- When wicked couple could not find any treasure directed by the dog, they went furious at the dog. The old man kicked and beat him to death, and the old woman finished the work by nearly chopping off his head with the sharp hoe. They then flung him into the hole and heaped the earth over his carcass.

14. How did the good old man mourn over Muko’s death?

Answer- Hearing the news of the demise of his pert, he mourned as if he had been his own child. At night he went under the pine tree set up some bamboo tubes in the ground, such as are used before tombs, in which he put fresh flowers. Then he laid a cup of water and a tray of food on the grave and burned several costly sticks of incense. He mourned a great while over his pet, calling him many dear names, as if he were alive.

15.What did the dog say in the dream of the old farmer?

Answer- The night when the good old man mourned a lot at the grave of the dead pet, the spirit of the dog appeared to him in a dream and said, to cut down the pine tree over his grave, and make from it a mortar for his rice pastry and a mill for his bean sauce.

16. How did the good old man make the mortar for the rice pastry?

Answer- As instructed by the spirit of the dog, the old man chopped down the tree and cut out of the middle of the trunk a section about two feet long. With great labour, partly by fire, partly by the chisel, he scraped out a hollow place as big as a small bowl. He then made a long handled hammer of wood, such as is used for pounding rice.

17. What happened when the good old famer tried to make rice pastry on New Year’s Eve?
Answer- When New Years’ time drew near, the good old farmer wished to make some rice pastry. When the rice was all boiled, granny put it into the mortar, the old man lifted his hammer to pound the mass into dough, and the blows fell heavy and fast till the pastry was all ready for baking. Suddenly the whole mass turned into a heap of gold coins.

18.          What happened when the good old lady tried to make bean sauce using the mill?
Answer- After the good old farmer got gold coins from the mortar, the good old lady thought to make bean sauce. When she took the hand-mill, and filling it with beans began to grind, the gold dropped like rain.

19.          What happened to the wicked old couple when they used the mortar and the mill to get rich?

Answer- When the wicked hag secretly watched the good old couple getting rich with the mortar and the mill they thought to give it a try. The next day the stingy and wicked neighbour came and borrowed the mortar and magic mill. They filled one with boiled rice and the other with beans.
Then the old man began to pound and the woman to grind. But at the first blow and turn, the pastry and sauce turned into a foul mass of worms.


20.        What did the wicked old couple do when they could not become rich with the help of the mortar and the mill?
Answer- When the wicked old couple got nothing but foul mass of worms, after using the mortar and the mill, they went furious. Out of anger, they chopped the mill into pieces, to use as firewood.

21.          What did the spirit of the old dog say to the good old man for the second time in his dream?
Answer- After the wicked old couple chopped the mortar and the mill to use as firewood, the dog appeared in the dream of the good old man and told him how the wicked people had burned the mill made from the pine tree and instructed him to take the ashes of the mill, sprinkle them on the withered trees, and they will bloom again.

22.         What were the wicked old couple doing when the good old man went to ask for the ash?
Answer- Guided by the spirit of the dog when the good old man went to ask for the ash from the wicked neighbours, he found the miserable old pair sitting at the edge of their square fireplace, in the middle of the floor, smoking and spinning. From time to time they warmed their hands and feet with the blaze from some bits of the mill, while behind them lay a pile of the broken pieces.

23.         How did the wicked pair behave when the good old man went to ask for the ash?
Answer- When the good old man asked for the ash from the wicked old couple, the covetous couple turned up their noses at him and scolded him as if he were a thief. But they let him fill his basket with the ashes.

24.         How did the good old man bloom the withered cherry tree for the first time?
Answer- After returning home with the ash, the old man took his wife into the garden. It being winter, their favourite cherry tree was bare. He sprinkled a pinch of ashes on it, and it sprouted blossoms until it became a cloud of pink blooms which perfumed the air

25.         In the days of the Daimios what was the custom when a Daimio used to pass by?
Answer- In the days of the daimios, it was the custom, when their lord passed by, for all the loyal people to shut up their high windows. They even pasted them fast with a slip of paper, so as not to commit the impertinence of looking down on his lordship. All the people along the road would fall upon their hands and knees and remain prostrate until the procession passed by.

26.         What was the work of the tall competent man?

Answer- Before the train of the Daimio, there was a competent man who used to control the people around. He marched ahead, crying out to the people by the way, “Get down on your knees! Get down on your knees!” And every one kneeled down while the procession was passing.

27.          Why did the tall competent man pretend to ignore the old man on the tree?
Answer- When the tall competent man of the van caught sight of the aged man up in the tree? He was about to call out to him in an angry tone, but, seeing he was such an old fellow, he pretended not to notice him and passed him by.

28.        What did the good old man do when the train of the Daimio reached near and how did the Daimio react?
Answer- When the daimio’s palanquin drew near, the old man, taking a pinch of ashes from his basket, scattered it over the tree.In a moment it burst into blossom.

Seeing this the Daimio was delighted and ordered the train to be stopped and got out to see the wonder. Calling the old man to him, he thanked him and ordered presents of silk robes, sponge-cake, fans and other rewards to be given him. He even invited him to his castle.

29.         Listening the story of the good old man what did the wicked old man desire?
Answer- When the greedy neighbour heard of the story of good old man and Daimio, he took some of the magic ashes and went out on the highway. There he waited until a daimio’s train came along and, instead of kneeling down like the crowd, he climbed a withered cherry tree. He also desired to be privileged by the Daimio.

30.        What happened when the wicked old man tried to bloom the withered tree with the ash?
Answer- Like the good old man, the wicked old man too had a desire to impress the Daimio by blooming the tree with the magic ash. So when the daimio himself was almost directly under him, he threw a handful of ashes over the tree, which did not change a particle. The wind blew the fine dust in the noses and eyes of the daimio and his wife. Such sneezing and choking! It spoiled all the pomp and dignity of the procession.

31.          How was the wicked old man punished to death?

Answer- After the sprinkling of ash by the wicked old man destroyed the grandeur of the train, the man whose business it was to cry, “Get down on your knees,” seized the old fool by the collar, dragged him from the tree, and tumbled him and his ash-basket into the ditch by the road. Then, beating him soundly, he left him for dead.

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Wednesday, 2 August 2017



A shed is a small room, away from the main house, for storing or keeping things, animals, tools, vehicles, etc. Here in this poem we get the description of shed at the bottom of the garden with a spider’s web hanging across the door. The poet could listen the creaking sounds of the rusty hinges. He has a desire i.e. to open the door one day.

The poet talks about a dusty old window around at the side with three cracked panes of glass and he feels that there’s someone staring at him each time that he passes by. One day he desires to peep through the window.

Then the poet talks about his brother. His brother says there’s a ghost in the shed who hides under the rotten floorboards, and if the poet ever dares to set foot inside he’ll jump out and chop off poet’s head. But the poet does not believe so. He wants to have a peek one day.

In the last stanza the poet says that there isn’t really a ghost.          His brother tells lies to keep the shed for his den. There isn’t anyone staring or making strange noises. And the spider has been gone from his web
And he does not know when. He is determined to go into the shed one day.

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Monday, 31 July 2017



1.       Daimios- (in 19th century Japan) wealthy landowners.
2.       Pet- a domestic or tamed animal.
3.       Cushion- a bag of cloth stuffed with a mass of soft material, used as a comfortable support for sitting or leaning on.
4.       Crape- a lightweight fabric of silk, cotton, or other fiber
5.       Snug- comfortable, warm, and cosy
6.       Tidbits- a small piece of tasty food.
7.       Chopsticks- each of a pair of small, thin, tapered sticks of wood, ivory, or plastic, held together in one hand and used as eating utensils especially by the Chinese and the Japanese
8.      Treated- behave towards or deal with in a certain way.
9.       a being with a soul.-like a human child  (showing emotion)
10.   Hoe- a long-handled gardening tool with a thin metal blade, used mainly for weeding.
11.    Spade- a tool with a sharp-edged, typically rectangular, metal blade and a long handle, used for digging or cutting earth, sand, turf, etc.
12.    O Tento Sama- The sun
13.    Harming-  have an adverse effect on
14.    Heron- a large fish-eating wading bird with long legs, a long S-shaped neck, and a long pointed bill.
15.    Sod-  the surface of the ground, with the grass growing on it.
16.    on purpose-Intentionally
17.    paws-  an animal's foot having claws and pads
18.   motioning- a movement of the hand or head
19.    Whining- To utter a low, usually nasal, complaining cry or sound.
20.   to and fro- in a constant movement backwards and forwards or from side to side
21.    Scratching. - Score or mark the surface of (something) with a sharp or pointed object.
22.   Buried- put or hide underground
23.   Struck- hit forcibly and deliberately with one's hand or a weapon.
24.   gleamed-shone/glittered
25.   feast- a large meal, typically a celebratory one
26.   plentifully- more than adequate quality 
27.   Petted- stroke or pat (an animal) affectionately.
28.   Wicked- evil or morally wrong.
29.   Sensitive- having or displaying a quick and delicate appreciation of others' feelings.
30.   Scolded- rebuke (someone) angrily.
31.    coaxed-persuaded; enticed
32.   dainties- tasty food
33.   Treasure- a quantity of precious metals, gems, or other valuable objects.
34.   Dragged- pull (someone or something) along forcefully, roughly, or with difficulty.
35.   to paw- feel or scrape with a paw or hoof.
36.   Scratch- mark the surface of (something) with a sharp or pointed object.
37.   covetous-greedy
38.   crone- old woman (old man’s wife)
39.   Furious- extremely angry.
40.   Chopping off- to cut or sever with a quick  , heavy blow or a series of blows, using an ax, hatchet, etc.
41.    flung- threw
42.   Heaped- put (objects or a loose substance) in a heap.
43.   carcass- dead body
44.   Mourning- the expression of sorrow for someone's death.
45.   Tombs- a large vault, typically an underground one, for burying the dead.
46.   Grave- a hole dug in the ground to receive a coffin or dead body, typically marked by a stone or mound.
47.   Incense- a gum, spice, or other substance that is burned for the sweet smell it produces.
48.   mortar- a cup-shaped receptacle in which ingredients are crushed or ground, used in cooking
49.   Mill-grind (something) in a mill.
50.   Trunk- the main woody stem of a tree as distinct from its branches and roots.
51.    Labour-  work, especially physical work.
52.   Chisel- cut or shape (something) with a chisel.
53.   Scraped- drag or pull a hard or sharp implement across (a surface or object) so as to remove dirt or other matter.
54.   Hollow- having a hole or empty space inside.
55.   Pounding: crushing; grinding
56.   Mass- a large amount of something
57.   Dough- a thick, malleable mixture of flour and liquid, used for baking into bread or pastry.

58.   Blows- a sudden, hard stroke.
59.   Heap- an untidy collection of objects placed haphazardly on top of each other.
60.   Envious- feeling or showing envy.
61.    Peeped- look quickly and furtively at something, especially through a narrow opening.
62.   Hag- a witch.
63.   Dripping- The act or sound of something falling in drops.
64.   Stingy- mean; ungenerous.
65.   Foul- having a disgusting smell or taste or being dirty.
66.   Chopped- cut (something) into pieces with repeated sharp blows of an axe or knife.
67.   Sprinkle- a small quantity or amount of something scattered over an object or surface.
68. Withered- bare and dry
69. Miserable- wretchedly unhappy or uncomfortable.
70. Edge- the outside limit of an object, area, or surface.
71. Blaze- a very large or fiercely burning fire.
72. Pile- a heap of things laid or lying one on top of another.
73. Humbly- meekly.
74. Covetous- greedy.
75. Turned up their noses-treated him with contempt.
76. Scolded- rebuke (someone) angrily.
77. Favourite- preferred to all others of the same kind.
78. Pinch- grip something tightly and sharply between finger and thumb.
79. Sprouted- (of a plant, flower, or hair) start to grow
80. Blooms- produce flowers; be in flower.
81. Perfumed- naturally having or producing a sweet, pleasant smell.
82. Approached- come near or nearer to (someone or something) in distance or time.
83. Wayside- the edge of a road.
84. Custom- a traditional and widely accepted way of behaving or doing something
85. train: Procession
86. Impertinence- lack of respect; rudeness.
87. Prostrate- Lying on the ground face downward.
88. Kneeled- be in or assume a position in which the body is supported by a knee or the knees,
89. Palanquin: royal van/cart
90. Scattered- throw in various random directions.
91. Pretended- not genuine; assumed.
92. Delighted- feeling or showing great pleasure.
93. Robes- a long, loose outer garment reaching to the ankles.
94. Castle- a large building, typically of the medieval period, fortified against attack with thick walls, battlements, towers, and often a moat.
95. Gleefully: happily
96. Handful- a quantity that fills the hand.
97. Particle-even a little bit
98. Choking- have severe difficulty in breathing
99. Pomp- ceremony and splendid display.
100.               Dignity- the state or quality of being worthy of honour or respect.
101.               Dragged- pull (someone or something) along forcefully, roughly, or with difficulty.
102.               Tumbled- fall suddenly, clumsily, or headlong.
103.               Ditch- a narrow channel dug at the side of a road or field, to hold or carry away water.
104.               green: (here)healthy, active and prosperous
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